Tajikistan (/tɑːdʒiːkɪˌstɑːn/ or /təˈdʒiːkɪstæn/ or ( /tæˈdʒiːkiːˌstæn/ Тоҷикистон [ˈtɔdʒikɪsˈtɔn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston; Persian: جمهوری تاجیکستان Jomhuri-ye Tajikestan; Russian: Республика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and People's Republic of China to the east. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan's Chitral and the Gilgit-Baltistan region, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.
Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Persian-speaking Tajik ethnic group, who share language, culture and history with Afghanistan and Iran. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). Mountains cover over 90% of this Central Asian republic.
After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Trade in commodities such as cotton, aluminium and uranium has contributed greatly to this steady improvement.
The Economy of Tajikistan
Tajikistan is considered to be the poorest Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country and one of the poorest countries in the world as a consequence of a devastating civil war.
Tajikistan obtains its revenues from exporting cotton and aluminium. More than half of the population in Tajikistan is involved in the agricultural industry, with most involved in activities related to cotton production. Much of the population is working outside the country. Thus, the economy is very vulnerable to external shocks.
The government pursued a firm staff-monitored program under the IMF to promote macroeconomic stability.